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Opposites Attract: Assortative Mating and Immigrant–Native Intermarriage in Modern Sweden

Opposites Attract: Assortative Mating and Immigrant–Native Intermarriage in Modern Sweden


This paper studies exactly just how immigrant–native intermarriages in Sweden are related to specific faculties of indigenous people and habits of assortative mating. Habits of educational- and age-assortative mating which are much like the ones that are in native–native marriages may mirror openness to immigrant teams, whereas assortative mating habits that suggest status considerations claim that nation of delivery continues to act as a boundary into the marriage market that is native. The research makes use of Swedish register information that cover the whole Swedish population for the amount of 1991–2009. The outcome from binomial and multinomial logistic regressions show that low status of natives when it comes to financial and demographic faculties is related to intermarriage and that intermarriages are described as academic and age heterogamy more than are native–native marriages. The findings suggest that immigrant females in addition to immigrant guys be more marriage that is attractive if they’re quite a bit more youthful than their indigenous partners. That is especially real for intermarriages with immigrants from specific parts of beginning, such as for instance spouses from Asia and Africa and husbands from Asia, Africa, additionally the center East. Gender variations in the intermarriage habits of indigenous gents and ladies are interestingly tiny.


A distinct function of several wedding markets is homogamy in spousal option. Lovers are generally comparable pertaining to status that is socioeconomicKalmijn 1991), age (van Poppel et al. 2001), training, battle, and faith (Blackwell and Lichter 2004). While there clearly was increasing similarity in specific faculties such as for example training and age over a few years (Schwartz and Mare 2005; Van de Putte et al. 2009), there is a decline in homogamy with regards to nation of delivery throughout the increase of intermarriages between natives and immigrants in European countries. Footnote 1 Scholars frequently study immigrant–native intermarriage when you look at the context of immigrant integration and regularly consider intermarriage whilst the last part of the assimilation procedure (Gordon 1964). an extremely neglected part of this is that “it takes two to tango”: it entails the maximum amount of willingness in the element of natives to intermarry since it does in the section of immigrants. This research addresses a subject who has hitherto been understudied for the reason that it analyses the (inter-)marriage behavior of indigenous Swedes. Footnote 2 centering on the indigenous bulk expands the intermarriage literary works and results in a significantly better knowledge of societal openness towards minorities into the marriage market that is majority’s. If you take under consideration the characteristics of both the indigenous partner in addition to immigrant partner, this paper is a vital share towards the intermarriage literary works. Intermarriage can be considered to signal the truth that various social teams consider each other as equals (cf. Kalmijn 1991), but wedding may also replicate hierarchies that are social excluding particular teams through the pool of prospective partners and reproducing social structures within these. Where intermarriages show systematic habits of hypergamy and hypogamy, this is certainly, indigenous partners marry up or down in faculties such as for example age and education, it may be figured the lovers don’t regard one another as social equals (Merton 1941). Intermarriage habits consequently have actually the prospective to show implicit hierarchies of immigrants into the wedding market. Footnote 3

The specific concern that this paper tries to response is whether intermarriages are from the status of native Swedes aswell as that of immigrants when you look at the marriage market that is swedish. By analysing the in-patient traits of natives which can be connected with intermarriage along with the educational- and age-assortative mating patterns of intermarried partners as opposed to the simple regularity of these unions, this research plays a role in a formerly understudied area within the intermarriage literature. It makes use of register that is high-quality within the whole populace of residents in Sweden and includes all marriages and non-marital unions with common kiddies which were created in the time 1991–2009.

Background and past Research on Immigrant–Native Intermarriages in European countries and Sweden

Intermarriage https://hookupdate.net/upforit-review/ between immigrants and natives has increased in many countries in europe in previous years and it is closely pertaining to the percentage of immigrants in the united states (Lanzieri 2012). This general upsurge in intermarriage in European countries is basically linked to a considerable escalation in intermarriage with partners from countries outside of the EU (de Valk and Medrano 2014). Intermarriage prices in Sweden have increased constantly since the 1970s, together with enhance is significantly steeper for males compared to ladies. Figure 1 shows the proportions of immigrant–native intermarriages (defined right right here as marriages from A swede that is native footnote and their foreign-born partner) and native–native marriages (thought as marriages between two indigenous partners) of all of the newly contracted marriages produced by indigenous Swedes from 1969 to 2009. At the time of 1991 the register extracts utilized in this paper contain an identifier for non-marital cohabitations with typical kids, rendering it feasible to report the stocks of native–native cohabitation and immigrant–native cohabitation.

Shares of native–native unions and immigrant–native unions of most unions of indigenous men that are swedish feamales in Sweden 1969–2009

The shares of immigrant–native marriage and cohabitation are close in size and have changed only marginally since the 1990s; for native men, there is a wider gap with immigrant–native cohabitation displaying lower rates with little increase over time and immigrant–native marriages displaying higher rates with a more pronounced increase over time for native women.

In previous years, intermarriage between indigenous Swedes and immigrants ended up being dominated by intermarriage along with other citizens that are nordic especially Finns (Cretser 1999). The increase in intermarriages can be largely accounted for by the increased number of marriages with partners from outside Europe, and Thailand has replaced Finland as the most frequent country of origin for intermarried immigrant women (although Finland remains the most common country of origin for intermarried immigrant men; Haandrikman 2014) in more recent years.